April Provisions Session – Teaching First Year Students: Provisions Fellows Present

To listen to the podcast from the session, click here

Our final provisions session of the year explored the theme of ‘Teaching First Year Students’. An audience of 25 were in attendance to hear a joint presentation from Provisions Fellows Peter Koonz, Serials and Electronic Resources Librarian and Jennifer Marlow, Assistant Professor of English (Composition and New Media). Koonz and Dr. Marlow had spent the last year collaborating together on a project to bring information literacy to Dr. Marlow’s first-year writing class, and this is what they had to share:

Koonz kicked off the presentation by explaining the pair’s process over the past year. Koonz and Marlow set up bi-weekly meetings where they would get together to discuss the common readings they had assigned each other, and share their thoughts and ideas.  Among the concepts that the pair had researched were the transfer of knowledge, how expertise is achieved within a domain, theories of human cognition and memory, and composition theory in first-year writing.

Dr. Marlow then took to the floor to provide the audience with details about her first-year writing course. Dr. Marlow explained that she considers the first-year writing classroom as an environment where students can be both welcomed to the college and provided with essential writing skills that will serve them well throughout their time at college and in their future endeavors. Dr. Marlow began her journey in this collaboration by addressing the research question of “Does a flipped first-year writing classroom help facilitate transferable knowledge of the writing process?” In her research, Dr. Marlow found that leading scholars on the subject attest that transfer is indeed possible and that teaching for transfer was a realistic goal. In the field of rhetoric and composition, Dr. Marlow discovered that there was a dearth of research when it came to its connection with transfer. She continued by detailing the concept of the flipped classroom. Dr. Marlow explained that, in a flipped classroom environment, the teacher acts very much as a guide on the side rather than being the central focus of the class. Another difference is that activities and assignments that are usually done at home are instead carried out in class. Outside of the classroom, students engage in watching online lectures, discussions and other multimedia based activities. In Dr. Marlow’s first-year writing class, this was the case too; the act of writing was saved for the classroom, while discussion and delivery of other course-related material was worked on outside of the classroom. Dr. Marlow used the web-based writing program 750words.com in each lesson to encourage her students to write a minimum of 750 words per class, on top of the essays and other writing projects that the students had. The online peer-review platform ‘Elireview’ was also used in the classroom. Dr. Marlow explained that this website was useful in the respect that it helped her students to become more critical thinkers and better writers after having revised their work based on peer feedback. The process helped Dr. Marlow’s students to become more effective metacognitive learners. By inverting the classroom, Dr. Marlow hoped to create a distraction free writing zone for her students. In the spirit of flipping, Dr. Marlow also changed the order of the assignments and projects. Normally, the students start with what are considered to be more personal and exploratory pieces, before eventually ending with a researched essay. However, in the flipped classroom, the students were set the researched essay at the beginning of the semester. One of Dr. Marlow’s main objectives were for her students to learn how to ‘follow a citation trail’ from the bibliography of a previously assigned reading.

Koonz stepped back in to detail his findings from a report that shed light on students’ struggles with research. There are a whole of issues that students encounter when making the leap from high school research to college resarch: students can have trouble coming up with key words, they can find it difficult to winnow out the good research from the bad research, and there is, as well, an over reliance on using Google and Wikipedia as search tools. Koonz found that students do, however, make their own adaptations when confronted with their first research assignment at college: many students start to use Google Scholar, which is a more appropriate academic resource, they learn to read abstracts to decipher the value of articles, and they also follow the citations in their articles to find other, similar resources.  Koonz admitted that he was impressed with these self-made adaptations, but affirms that the process is still disjointed and uncoordinated without expert help (which librarians can provide).  Koonz continued by explaining that during research assignments, the teacher will contact the library and often set-up a meeting between the students and the library instructors. This can be a difficult process because the librarians often have no prior relationships to speak of with both students and teachers. There is also the issue of trying to provide the most useful, relevant library instruction within the limited timeframe. Another aspect that is problematic for library instructors is that of assessment; it is particularly difficult to get assessment data back with this model.  Koonz went to say that, after reading for ProVisions over the summer, he concluded that the concept of flipped classrooms was the perfect model for library instruction. After having contacted Dr. Marlow, it was decided that the pair would test the model in her first-year writing class. For Dr Marlow’s class, Koonz explained that he, first, familiarized himself with the students’ assignments, and then proceeded to create a series of instructional videos to help those students make use of the library resources. After the students had watched the videos, Koonz came to the classroom where he helped to answer questions and offer suggestions while they worked on their assignments. Through this opportunity in Dr. Marlows’ class, Koonz stated that he was able to resolve those previous inherent challenges of library instruction: for the students, the videos helped to create a familiarity with Koonz before entering the classroom, there was also now ample time to relay instruction, and assessment became all the more straightforward with Koonz able to see, in person, how the students were faring, and in what areas they needed help. Koonz concluded by explaining how positive the flipped classroom experience was, as well as sharing his optimism that the model could work in a wide range of different course in the future.

In the final part of the presentation, Dr. Marlow returned to the floor. She resumed by spelling out the importance of teaching for transfer. Dr. Marlow explained that transfer is not a spontaneous process, and that it is crucial that faculty facilitate and foster transfer by creating an environment of well-designed instruction. Within the field of rhetoric and composition, it is important for the students to gain a level of ‘general/local’ knowledge. Presenting research that she reviewed, Dr. Marlow explained that, in order to try to achieve this knowledge, many colleges have a first-year general writing course, followed by a writing intensive course later in their major. However, Dr. Marlow’s research stated that it would be more effective to add a further course in between the general and intensive classes. It is also recommended that writing is integrated into all coursework and across the curriculum. Lastly, it would be helpful for faculty from all disciplines to collaborate with the first-writing program instructors. Dr. Marlow went on to explain that a writing curriculum that teaches for transfer would have more writing in the early stages of the students’ time at college, as well as a Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) program that offers faculty the opportunity to collaborate, and incorporate discipline specific instruction. To conclude, Dr. Marlow clarified the differences between flipping instruction and flipping the classroom. In the flipped classroom, the in-class content is moved outside of the classroom, while homework moves inside. Flipping instruction, on the other hand, is more of a singular teaching experience like Dr. Marlow’s and Koonz’s collaboration. Lastly, on the topic of student feedback, Dr. Marlow disclosed that a high percentage of her class regarded both 750 words and flipped library instruction as having made a big difference in enhancing their learning experience.

After the presentation had concluded, the floor was opened up for questions and discussions. These were a few points and observations that arose:

  • It is common for students to be more preoccupied with simply producing and finishing the work, and not metacognitively analyzing their learning process.
  • Faculty collaboration is crucial; the process can provide valuable insight into their students’ academic progress and performances.
  • It is important to develop a ‘writing habit’ in students.
  • Students enjoy and benefit from working in a distraction free space.
  • Further links must be established between librarians and professors and collaboration opportunities should be explored.
  • It would be beneficial for students to be explicitly aware of the writing objectives required of them in each discipline.

To listen to the podcast from the session, click here

To view Dr. Marlow’s handouts from the session, click on these links – DEW midterm project & Citation Trail library worksheet

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Writing Tools

In honor of writing here is an article that discusses different devices for writing:  “Do You Have Something to Write With?”

From notepads on phones, to real notepads, to post-its or PicoPads there are dozens of ways to write down information. And of course, there are dozens of situations one may find themselves in with the need to write. Sometimes there isn’t a writing utensil or paper within reach (although some of the truly dedicated are never caught without these items) and a phone or other electronic device will have to do. At other times a small scrap of paper found at the bottom of a purse or pocket will have to work. Whatever the circumstance, those who are dedicated to writing and acquiring knowledge will find a way to write no matter the situation.

Teaching Writing in the Disciplines

Megan Fulwiler, Associate
Professor of English, discussed the history and Theory of Writing in the
disciplines. In the 1980s the Writing Across the Curriculum Movement (WAC)
began as a way to get students to write more professionally. Three functions of
writing were determined: transactional, expressive, and poetic. Expressive
writing is often used to improve transactional writing; which is the most
widely used form. According to Dr. Fulwiler, there were several principles to
the WAC movement. “Writing is the responsibility of the entire academic
community. Writing must be integrated across departmental boundaries” In other
words, it is not just the responsibility of English department. “Writing
instruction must be continuous all four years of undergraduate education,” and
lastly, “writing promotes learning.” While acknowledging these principles it is
also important to remember that “different disciplines value different things.”
So not every discipline will utilize writing in the same way. A final quote
from Dr. Fulwiler’s presentation, “Writing transforms students from passive to
active learners and deepens students’ understanding of a subject matter.”

David Goldschmidt, Assistant Professor of Computer Science, discussed
writing as a form of communication and as a form of communicating ideas with an
emphasis on coding. Coding – like any language – has different nuances or
dialects.  Coding can also have
errors/defects or bug in it just like any piece of text. Again like writing,
the goal is to have as few errors as possible. Dr. Goldschmidt listed the steps
to writing code; which are the same for most forms of writing. The steps are
figuring out the requirements, analysis, design, coding, and finally testing.
The sequence is repeated if the testing reveals defects. For his classes, Dr.
Goldschmidt requires his students to write journals, algorithms, and
requirement documents.

Robert Shane, Assistant
Professor of Art History, discussed Teaching Writing in the Discipline of Art
History. He often uses the technique of free writing in his classroom. Posing a
question and then giving students a few minutes to respond. Dr. Shane usually
bases his question(s) on a particular piece of art; however, this method can
work in any of the disciplines. According to Dr. Shane this form of writing
allows students time to think about how art history is viewed critically and
“ensures students are actively engaged.” Other forms of writing that were
mentioned are cover memos for formal writing assignments and argumentative
scripts. Cover memos allow students to informally write about the formal
writing process. They can share what was difficult or what was easy about the
assignment, or write about the actual process of writing. An argumentative
script involves students comparing and contrasting, thinking critically, and formally
analyzing art in a way that they are comfortable with.

Podcast of the October session.

Links from the Session:

Dr. Shane’s Handout

Dr. Shane’s Argumentative Script Assignment

Dr. Shane’s Presentation

The WAC Clearinghouse at Colorado State

Rehearsing New Roles for Writers

David Russell’s book:
Writing In The Academic Disciplines

“Writing and the Disciplines” by Jonathon Monroe (from Cornell)

Top 10 schools for writing

Michael Carter’s article, “Ways of Knowing,
Doing, and Writing in the Disciplines”

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704631504575531932754922518.” target=”_blank”>Handwriting First

Classroom Writing Time: Remedial or Beneficial?

Many teachers have their students write during class time. However, how many teachers actually have their students go through the entire writing process for an assignment in class? This does not mean writing quick responses or responding to essay questions on tests. All the work that goes into writing can include research, outlining, writing several drafts, and asking for peer or teacher help. Do teachers and students even have time to do this in class? The answer seems to be that they should make time. After all, it is not about the quantity of work that is accomplished it is about the quality of work.
In his article “Writing in Public (in the Classroom),” Ryan Cordell discusses the importance of making time for what he calls “writing in public.” He lists several benefits for why students should work on writing during class time. He believes that the overall benefits far outweigh the time that is lost and the content not taught.

Teaching in a Post Virginia-Tech World

          October 21, 2008- This month Provisions explored the controversial topic of Teaching in a Post-Virginia Tech World. Presenters included, American Studies instructor Nan Mullennaux and Jay Hamer, Director of Counseling and Psychological Services. Nan Mullennaux shared a personal experience with one of her students and the step by step process in which she dealt with the situation. In doing so, Mullennaux displayed the appropriate way to handle a situation in the classroom. Jay Hamer presented a great deal of information pertaining to the counseling center and the services they provide for students. These services include consultation and crisis intervention. Hamer also shared his “wave” method for treating students who are experiencing anxiety and panic attacks as a result of stress or the increase of fear which is ever so present in our society since 9/11. 

          Major questions and issues that were addressed during this session were how to better inform teachers, especially adjunct teachers, how to deal with students of special interest, how to ensure students that college campus’ are a secure and safe environment, and how to identify when a student is expressing creativity or expressing a disturbing behavior. 

          Below you will find the materials in which each presenter shared during the session, as well as links to other helpful and informative resources.  

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