September Provisions Session: Teaching and Learning with International Students

**To access the podcast from this session, click here**

Our first Provisions session of the year explored the theme of Teaching and Learning with International Students. Presenters shared previous experience with teaching international students, and effective strategies for improving learning for international students. An audience of approximately 60 faculty and staff members attended to hear presentations from Colleen Flynn Thapalia, Director of International Recruitment & Admissions, Dr. John F. Dion and Dr. Angela Gordon, Professors of Business, and Ian MacDonald, Professor of Computer Science.

Colleen Thapalia started off the session by providing information about St.Rose’s current internationalization efforts (click here for her presentation). The main purpose of internationalization efforts is to create a sense of “global connectedness” by providing support for international students, and supporting study abroad programs. On campus support includes orientation services, writing centers for ESL (English as a Second Language) and ELL (English Language Learner) students, and other services, such as help obtaining a driver’s license or teaching students how to understand the tax system. Colleen provided a few links for faculty to use as a resource for grading. These websites help faculty to understand the differences in grading systems, varied by country. Understanding how the American grading system is different than in other countries allows teachers to know what international students may be expecting.  Colleen shared a story about an experience where her professor (from another country) thought that a grade of “67” was equivalent to a “B”. This helps depict her message that grading systems and expectations vary by country. Colleen supplies another source for faculty to explore, UNESCO Profiles, which provides teaching standards and qualifications for different countries’ educational systems.

Next to present were Dr. John Dion and Dr. Angela Gordon (click here for their presentation). Angela started off by explaining her experience with teaching both French students from the Paris School Of Business, and American students. John then highlights three main goals they had for the students, cross-cultural management skills, internationalization of material, and for the French students, learning the American approach to education. Cross-cultural management skills taught the students about cultural differences in leadership, team dynamic, independence, expectations, and communication. John shares his success of creating and maintaining a comfortable learning atmosphere for the students. He discusses his method of teaching some material in only French, which forced the French students to take the lead, since the American students couldn’t understand French. Overall, John and Angela learned that the French students gained a greater appreciation for the American education system because it focused on critical thinking, rather than rote memorization of material.

Last to present was Ian MacDonald. Ian started off his presentation by discussing the increase in international students in the field of Computer Science. With an increase in the number of international students, several challenges become apparent. One of the challenges he faced dealt with course offerings. The increased number of students created the need for more sections of classes offered, as well as classes offered during different times in the day. He then spoke of delivery methods as another challenged faced by the increased number of students. His example of this was that in Saudi Arabia, you are not allowed to take courses online, which created the need to offer some courses that would typically be online, in person. As for challenges within the classroom, Ian reinforced what Colleen had mentioned during her presentation pertaining to the different grading expectations that international students may have. Ian then wrapped up his presentation by sharing some of his previous advisor experiences and offered several suggestions for teachers and or advisors of international students. Here is a list of some of those suggestions:

  • to always be welcoming
  • to always be sensitive-as these students are often very far from home
  • make yourself easily accessible
  • always be consistent with each student
  • share course offerings in advance so students can plan ahead
  • remind students of the differences in American education
  • offer places for students to go outside of campus or the school area
  • encourage American students to interact with international students

Following the presentations, the floor was opened up for discussion and questions from the audience.

**Our next Provisions session will be held on Tuesday, October 20th. The theme of the October session is Teaching First Generation Students**

September 22, 2015 Session Reminder

Just a reminder: The next ProVisions session will be held tomorrow, Tuesday, September 22, 2015 in Standish Conference Room A from 12:00-1:15 pm. This month’s topic is Teaching and Learning with International Students.  We are looking forward to hearing everyone’s thoughts and experiences!! Please join us!

**Don’t forget that lunch and refreshments will be provided : )!!!**

Teaching International Students

As most of us know, teaching international students can be a difficult task for educators. With an increasing number of international students in schools and universities, it is important for educators to maintain knowledgable of the best practices for teaching a diverse population of students. Many researchers have dedicated time to finding ways to improve the quality of teaching for diverse students. Below I have included a few links to pages which include strategies and information for improving learning for international students.

The Higher Education Academy provides a variety of helpful teaching approaches for creating a learning environment conducive for international students

The Center for Teaching Excellence of the University of Virginia provides an overview of techniques, practices, and accommodations for the learning of all students

The Legal Writing Institute offers a list of articles, videos, books, and other online resources with information on teaching international students

Just a reminder: The next ProVisions session will be held on Tuesday, September 22, 2015 in Standish Conference Room A from 12:00-1:15 pm. This month’s topic is Teaching and Learning with International Students. 

April Provisions Session – Teaching First Year Students: Provisions Fellows Present

To listen to the podcast from the session, click here

Our final provisions session of the year explored the theme of ‘Teaching First Year Students’. An audience of 25 were in attendance to hear a joint presentation from Provisions Fellows Peter Koonz, Serials and Electronic Resources Librarian and Jennifer Marlow, Assistant Professor of English (Composition and New Media). Koonz and Dr. Marlow had spent the last year collaborating together on a project to bring information literacy to Dr. Marlow’s first-year writing class, and this is what they had to share:

Koonz kicked off the presentation by explaining the pair’s process over the past year. Koonz and Marlow set up bi-weekly meetings where they would get together to discuss the common readings they had assigned each other, and share their thoughts and ideas.  Among the concepts that the pair had researched were the transfer of knowledge, how expertise is achieved within a domain, theories of human cognition and memory, and composition theory in first-year writing.

Dr. Marlow then took to the floor to provide the audience with details about her first-year writing course. Dr. Marlow explained that she considers the first-year writing classroom as an environment where students can be both welcomed to the college and provided with essential writing skills that will serve them well throughout their time at college and in their future endeavors. Dr. Marlow began her journey in this collaboration by addressing the research question of “Does a flipped first-year writing classroom help facilitate transferable knowledge of the writing process?” In her research, Dr. Marlow found that leading scholars on the subject attest that transfer is indeed possible and that teaching for transfer was a realistic goal. In the field of rhetoric and composition, Dr. Marlow discovered that there was a dearth of research when it came to its connection with transfer. She continued by detailing the concept of the flipped classroom. Dr. Marlow explained that, in a flipped classroom environment, the teacher acts very much as a guide on the side rather than being the central focus of the class. Another difference is that activities and assignments that are usually done at home are instead carried out in class. Outside of the classroom, students engage in watching online lectures, discussions and other multimedia based activities. In Dr. Marlow’s first-year writing class, this was the case too; the act of writing was saved for the classroom, while discussion and delivery of other course-related material was worked on outside of the classroom. Dr. Marlow used the web-based writing program in each lesson to encourage her students to write a minimum of 750 words per class, on top of the essays and other writing projects that the students had. The online peer-review platform ‘Elireview’ was also used in the classroom. Dr. Marlow explained that this website was useful in the respect that it helped her students to become more critical thinkers and better writers after having revised their work based on peer feedback. The process helped Dr. Marlow’s students to become more effective metacognitive learners. By inverting the classroom, Dr. Marlow hoped to create a distraction free writing zone for her students. In the spirit of flipping, Dr. Marlow also changed the order of the assignments and projects. Normally, the students start with what are considered to be more personal and exploratory pieces, before eventually ending with a researched essay. However, in the flipped classroom, the students were set the researched essay at the beginning of the semester. One of Dr. Marlow’s main objectives were for her students to learn how to ‘follow a citation trail’ from the bibliography of a previously assigned reading.

Koonz stepped back in to detail his findings from a report that shed light on students’ struggles with research. There are a whole of issues that students encounter when making the leap from high school research to college resarch: students can have trouble coming up with key words, they can find it difficult to winnow out the good research from the bad research, and there is, as well, an over reliance on using Google and Wikipedia as search tools. Koonz found that students do, however, make their own adaptations when confronted with their first research assignment at college: many students start to use Google Scholar, which is a more appropriate academic resource, they learn to read abstracts to decipher the value of articles, and they also follow the citations in their articles to find other, similar resources.  Koonz admitted that he was impressed with these self-made adaptations, but affirms that the process is still disjointed and uncoordinated without expert help (which librarians can provide).  Koonz continued by explaining that during research assignments, the teacher will contact the library and often set-up a meeting between the students and the library instructors. This can be a difficult process because the librarians often have no prior relationships to speak of with both students and teachers. There is also the issue of trying to provide the most useful, relevant library instruction within the limited timeframe. Another aspect that is problematic for library instructors is that of assessment; it is particularly difficult to get assessment data back with this model.  Koonz went to say that, after reading for ProVisions over the summer, he concluded that the concept of flipped classrooms was the perfect model for library instruction. After having contacted Dr. Marlow, it was decided that the pair would test the model in her first-year writing class. For Dr Marlow’s class, Koonz explained that he, first, familiarized himself with the students’ assignments, and then proceeded to create a series of instructional videos to help those students make use of the library resources. After the students had watched the videos, Koonz came to the classroom where he helped to answer questions and offer suggestions while they worked on their assignments. Through this opportunity in Dr. Marlows’ class, Koonz stated that he was able to resolve those previous inherent challenges of library instruction: for the students, the videos helped to create a familiarity with Koonz before entering the classroom, there was also now ample time to relay instruction, and assessment became all the more straightforward with Koonz able to see, in person, how the students were faring, and in what areas they needed help. Koonz concluded by explaining how positive the flipped classroom experience was, as well as sharing his optimism that the model could work in a wide range of different course in the future.

In the final part of the presentation, Dr. Marlow returned to the floor. She resumed by spelling out the importance of teaching for transfer. Dr. Marlow explained that transfer is not a spontaneous process, and that it is crucial that faculty facilitate and foster transfer by creating an environment of well-designed instruction. Within the field of rhetoric and composition, it is important for the students to gain a level of ‘general/local’ knowledge. Presenting research that she reviewed, Dr. Marlow explained that, in order to try to achieve this knowledge, many colleges have a first-year general writing course, followed by a writing intensive course later in their major. However, Dr. Marlow’s research stated that it would be more effective to add a further course in between the general and intensive classes. It is also recommended that writing is integrated into all coursework and across the curriculum. Lastly, it would be helpful for faculty from all disciplines to collaborate with the first-writing program instructors. Dr. Marlow went on to explain that a writing curriculum that teaches for transfer would have more writing in the early stages of the students’ time at college, as well as a Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) program that offers faculty the opportunity to collaborate, and incorporate discipline specific instruction. To conclude, Dr. Marlow clarified the differences between flipping instruction and flipping the classroom. In the flipped classroom, the in-class content is moved outside of the classroom, while homework moves inside. Flipping instruction, on the other hand, is more of a singular teaching experience like Dr. Marlow’s and Koonz’s collaboration. Lastly, on the topic of student feedback, Dr. Marlow disclosed that a high percentage of her class regarded both 750 words and flipped library instruction as having made a big difference in enhancing their learning experience.

After the presentation had concluded, the floor was opened up for questions and discussions. These were a few points and observations that arose:

  • It is common for students to be more preoccupied with simply producing and finishing the work, and not metacognitively analyzing their learning process.
  • Faculty collaboration is crucial; the process can provide valuable insight into their students’ academic progress and performances.
  • It is important to develop a ‘writing habit’ in students.
  • Students enjoy and benefit from working in a distraction free space.
  • Further links must be established between librarians and professors and collaboration opportunities should be explored.
  • It would be beneficial for students to be explicitly aware of the writing objectives required of them in each discipline.

To listen to the podcast from the session, click here

To view Dr. Marlow’s handouts from the session, click on these links – DEW midterm project & Citation Trail library worksheet

Lectures – Relevant or Redundant?

In ‘Are lectures the best way to teach students?’ from the Guardian, a handful of academics discuss whether or not the traditional lecture, synonymous with higher-education for many years, is still relevant and effective in today’s climate.

Bruce Charlton, a reader in evolutionary psychiatry at Newcastle University believes that we are now seeing a pale imitation of what used to be the ‘best pragmatic way’ of teaching those who wanted to be taught. Charlton bemoans how, in this day and age, lectures typically consist of a whole host of different problems concerning both the lecturer and the students. He paints a picture of a several hundred strong group of inattentive, heavily distracted students who are passive recipients to an interminably long and unenthusiastic PowerPoint presentation, of which they may have already seen online. Despite this claim, Charlton explains that the art of lecturing, when properly executed, is on par with live theatre and musical performances. In order to achieve this, high levels of effort and concentration are required from all involved. Without the positive involvement from diligent students and charismatic lecturers, Charlton fears that we are witnessing a decline of what has the potential to be a valuable and memorable learning experience.

University teacher Sam Marsh and senior lecturer Nick Gurski from the mathematics and statistics department at the University of Sheffield experienced such a decline in lecturing first-hand. In their first-year classes, Marsh and Gurski saw how attendance was becoming a major issue; almost half of the class stopped attending lectures by the end of the semester. Despite attempts to improve the syllabus, update the materials, add tests, and even change the lecturers, the problem still remained. In response, Marsh and Gurski decided to replace lectures with a series of short, filmed, online videos appropriate to the specific topics. The goal was to allow students to watch the videos at a time most convenient to their needs and then carry out a short test. Marsh and Gurski discovered that this new format succeeded not only by getting the students to learn and attend to the material on time, but also in improving students’ exam results. Due to the success of this new format, Marsh and Gurski concluded that, in their experience at least, lecturing is no longer a viable or effective way to best teach their students. Although these are just the opinions of a small number of educators, it provokes some important questions:

Is this newfound dependence on technology a positive step toward improving students’ potential to learn? Through moving away from lectures, are we losing what, as Charlton stressed, is an ‘irreplaceable’ medium of teaching? Do they still have a valid place in colleges and universities?

CoVisions – Responding To Students In Need

Monday saw the debut of ProVisions’ new partner program – Covisions. CoVisions is a new series sponsored by the Student Affairs department, and is co-ordinated by Mary Fitzsimmons and Jennifer Richardson. The objective is to support the holistic needs of both students and faculty through innovative collaborations. As with ProVisions, the series follows the same format of three presenting faculty followed by an informal Question & Answer session toward the end. The first installment of CoVisions focused on the theme of “Responding to Students in Need.” The presenters for the session were Dr. Jay Hamer, Director of Counseling Services, Dennis McDonald, Vice President for Student Affairs, and Dr. Megan Fulwiler, Associate Professor of English and ProVisions legend.

Dr. Jay Hamer began proceedings by reflecting on how the counselling department and the issues within in it have changed dramatically during his 19 years at The College of Saint Rose. In those early years, there were students with depression, as well as those who experienced struggles related to adapting to college or with their roommates, but there was not the level of chronic mental illness that is part and parcel of the job today. Dr. Hamer stated that the climate has very much changed in relation to student’s mental health – it has now become a lot more pathological. There appear to be more students with serious disorders than ever before. Increased numbers of students are coming to college with prescription for medication. Dr. Hamer explained that anxiety has become the biggest issue for college students today. Anxiety attacks and debilitating symptoms associated with anxiety are on the rise. Another particular area of concern that has become more common is the rise of suicidal ideation among students. Dr. Hamer revealed some rather eye-opening statistics to support this claim. In the last 12 months, 10% of students seriously considered committing suicide, while 50 % of college students reported having experienced suicidal ideation in their life. Dr. Hamer announced that, at Saint Rose, there are an alarming amount of students with serious issues related to mental health, including a significant number who struggle or have struggled with thoughts of self-harm or at risk behaviors. Dr. Hamer believes Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a valuable resource in striving to alleviate these problems. He also reflected that the process from feeling suicidal to acting on it appears to be significantly more abrupt than it used to be. Within DBT, the students learn skills to help them cope better with emotional disorders. Dr. Hamer concluded by stating what he believed to be the two effective solutions to reducing suicidal ideation. Firstly, to ensure that the students are receiving counselling treatment; students are far less likely to take any drastic steps when they are in counselling. The second solution is to, however possible, remove the means or opportunities for students to make an attempt. This could include taking away any potential weapons or placing the students in a safer environment.

Dennis McDonald was next up to present, and he started by detailing the inner workings of the Behavioural Assessment Team (BAT).  McDonald explained that the BAT, which was started in 2006, dealt with a wide range of student issues. One of its main objectives is to “Increase the identification of students whose behavior are distressed, disruptive, or dysregulated.” McDonald stated that there is a meeting each week on Friday for the team to discuss certain students who may be in need of help. The team will identify students who may be causing a disruption at the college, try to find out the cause of the disruption, and discuss the steps needed to best address the problem. McDonald explained that the BAT are essentially tasked with finding the root cause of the behaviour and implementing an appropriate intervention. According to McDonald, a significant issue regularly faced by BAT is students’ lack of class attendance. For each case, the team collaborates with the appropriate faculty to see how the student in question is doing in other classes and in their residential life. McDonald made the case for early intervention. By helping the students and attempting to solve problems as early on as possible, the hope is that it will not grow into something potentially more problematic. McDonald also took the time to dispel the misconception that faculty are not permitted to air their concerns about students with their colleagues. If you are worried about a student, it is perfectly acceptable to share your concern and ask the opinion of a colleague. McDonald concluded by stating that in situations where students are acting in disruptive ways that go beyond the point of classroom management, the services and support exist to help faculty deal with such students.

Megan Fulwiler was last to present. Dr. Fulwiler shared her experiences about the role that writing can play in student behavior problems. Dr. Fulwiler began with a story about a young man in one of her colleague’s classes several years ago. The student was unpredictable, disrespectful, disruptive, and posed a threat to the safe environment of her writing class. After much conversation between Dr. Fulwiler and her colleague, it was decided that the best solution was to contact someone (Dr. Hamer) who would know exactly how to help. Dr. Fulwiler suggested several solutions to deal with a scenario of this variety. One of which pertained to early intervention: it is so important for faculty to share their problem or negative experience as soon as it happens.  She also recommended initiating one on one conversation with the student, with the intention of finding the cause of the problem as early as possible. As was the solution in this case, Dr. Fulwiler recommended contacting someone who can help, such as Dr. Hamer or the BAT. Inspired by Michelle Payne’s book on “When Students Write about Abuse and Eating Disorder”, Dr. Fulwiler has been able to make the connection between writing and student behavior. Personal writing, especially, is a major tool in identifying potential student concerns and issues. Sometime there is evidence of a pattern emerging in writing. There can perhaps be consistent themes of violence or depression. Dr. Fulwiler explained that it is important to find out their purpose and inspiration. Is it merely creative or does it have personal relevance? Dr. Fulwiler gave an example of a former student who, for an autobiographical exercise, chose to write about her abusive relationship with her former boyfriend. The students in the class were using online blogs to share, explore, and connect their topic. Dr. Fulwiler’s student confided in Megan that her boyfriend had managed to find her blog, which stirred up a lot of problems. The young man’s parents even tried to sue the college for defamation of character despite the absence of any identifying features in the blog. Despite this, the student maintained her blog, which was a therapeutic and helpful process. Dr. Fulwiler concluded by stating that when working with student writing, we also work with student’s lives. It is important for them to have a space to do that, and for faculty to be there to help.

The floor was then opened up for questions. These were some of the points and observations that were made:

  • Faculty should err on the side of caution when referring students to the counselling center – If there are any concerns about a student, seeking help should be recommended.
  • The creation of an online forum available to help faculty in matters of student mental health would be greatly beneficial.
  • Decreasing the stigma around mental health would help students to seek help more readily.
  • It is crucial that students are teachers alike are both aware of the resources available to them.
  • It is important that teachers have the support of the college when dealing with potentially dangerous or threatening students.

Lastly, these are a few links and handouts relevant to the discussion:


Students in Distress Manual Sept. 2012 &

March Provisions Session – Teaching Lives: What Keeps You Motivated

To listen to the podcast from this session, click here

Our second provisions session of the year explored the theme of “What Keeps You Motivated”. An audience of 30 were in attendance to hear presentations from Dr. Mary Ann McLoughlin, Professor of Mathematics, Prof. Julie Demers, Adjunct Professor of English, and Dr. Stephen Birchak, Professor of Counselling.

Dr. McLoughlin kicked things off by providing us with a history of both The College of Saint Rose and her own journey that brought her there. She graduated from St. Rose in 1963 before continuing her academic journey with graduate school at Washington University in St Louis. After successfully obtaining her Master’s Degree, she went on to teach geometry at high school level. In 1965, Dr. McLoughlin returned to St. Rose as a teacher, where she was younger than many of the students in her current class. Speaking back on her time as a student, Dr. McLoughlin stated that she could have studied anything, given her overwhelming motivation to learn. As a teacher however, given that St. Rose was a Catholic College at the time, it was not initially easy to gain authority due to her age and the fact that Dr. McLoughlin was not a Sister. Throughout her time at the College, she took on the roles as Chair and Head of many committees. As chair of humanities, Dr. McLoughlin carried out formal class observations, running the rule over teaching staff and learning from them in the process. Ever seeking to learn and improve, Dr. McLoughlin also spent two years teaching at the Albany County Jail.  During these 50 plus years of teaching experience, Dr. McLoughlin emphasised the importance of mentors. Her parents were her very first mentors, followed by teachers in her Elementary and Secondary Schools, as well as important figures at St. Rose. Dr. McLoughlin noted the value of having retired mentors familiar with the world of academia, who can offer outside yet expert perspective. Dr. McLoughlin herself has acted as a mentor to student teachers, sharing with them her experiences and wisdom. Variety, too, has been an important factor for Dr. McLoughlin; she explained how she took her students all the way to Egypt on a field trip. To conclude, Dr. McLoughlin stressed that teachers must have a passion for their subject and be able to convey the most important elements of their subject to their students.

Second to present was Professor Julie Demers from the English department. Demers announced that she wanted to focus her presentation on her favourite subject and biggest motivation: her students. As a student herself, Demers recalled an activity organised by her teacher where the students would have to write down in a letter what they like about class and what they would change about it if they could. Having now adopted the same activity with her own students, despite initial dread about what they would say, Demers found that it proved to provide an insight into the lives of her students as they both informed her of the positive feelings they had about the class and of constructive changes that they would like to make. Thanks to this activity, improvements were initiated and the classroom experience was improved. In her moments away from teaching, Demers explained that she felt a longing to get back in the classroom with her students, who fuel her passion for the profession year after year. Demers confessed, however, that even with the passion, it is not all plain sailing. Despite all the hard work and detailed, engaging lesson plans, her students do not always match her enthusiasm. For Demers, the most rewarding side of teaching comes when her students ‘give back’. In order to achieve this process, Demers uses reflective and metacognitive based assignments as well as free writing activities to foster introspective thoughts from her students. Demers encourages her class to ‘stop and think’ so as to reflect on their own learning and growth as a student. This is what is most motivating for Demers. Rather poignantly, Demers brought proceedings to a close by showing examples of students’ admissions of struggles and revelations of progress.
Here are the handouts Julie brought for the audience – Reflective Exercises2 ProVisionsWriter’s Reflection in 3 Parts

Last up on stage was Dr. Birchak from the Counselling program. He began by reflecting that we should all ask ourselves the question“What keeps us motivated?” every day, such is its importance. Having taught since 1980, Dr. Birchak failed to recall a single year when he was not excited about the upcoming teaching term. Positive psychology plays a big part in Dr. Birchak’s life right now. Although it involves a lot of hard work, Dr. Birchak insists that we can make ourselves happier if we really want to do so. Rather worryingly though, Dr. Birchak explains that suicides have doubled in the last 50 years, and accompanies that statistic with a quote from Earnest Hemmingway – “Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know”. He, however, fervently disagrees that there is a meaningful correlation between intelligence and unhappiness, stressing that some of the most intelligent people he knows are very happy.  Dr. Birchak proceeds by pointing to research revealing that our happiness or indeed unhappiness is in our own hands. 50% of our happiness is genetic, only 10% is said to be due to our circumstances, while 40% is down to intentional behaviour. Dr. Birchak validates this research by referencing Viktor Frankl’s inspirational perspective on his days imprisoned in a World War II Concentration Camp. Dr. Birchak listed five active reflections that help to maintain happiness and motivation: I am free, I like my best me, I have grateful perspective, I promote kindness and calm aggression, and I love and I am loved. True freedom, Dr Birchak says, is to hold the ability to choose your own attitude and rise above the insanity. Perspective, too, is particularly crucial, as is avoiding any forms of pettiness and drama. In terms of motivation, Dr. Birchak falls in love with each and every new year. He chooses to cherish the new moments that he experiences, and, significantly, avoids becoming apathetic. Dr. Birchak described how by becoming apathetic, cynicism enters the equation, and soon enough one loses the control of their own life. He explains the importance of finding freshness of appreciation, enjoying every new class, and in turn, every graduation. Finally, Dr. Birchak declares that sharing his passion with his students is what motivates him and drives him to continue.

Unfortunately, due to time constraints, there were only a few minutes of the post presentation discussion. Despite this, the following points were made:

  • Former teachers acted as great motivators in each of the presenters’ lives.
  • Students will benefit from teachers seeing the best in them and showing unwavering faith.
  • There is always hope in every situation, and it can help you triumph in adversity.

To listen to the podcast from the session, click here.


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